segunda-feira, 20 de outubro de 2008

Meeting of Doctrine.
Prof. João Ricardo Ferreira de França



BASIC TEXT: 1 Corinthian 1.21-25.

Introduction: Our time is marked by the crisis in the preaching of the Word of God, ironically the television media, radiofônica and printed has been publishing preachings, cd's, dvd's and books with preachings have been overfilling the bookstores in general. Still, like this, we looked about and we noticed that the preaching continues absentee in our time. Why all this? The pulpit is lost in our time.
There is a desperate scream in the believers' heart. They ask for a true Church. Where is this Church? Now, this church can only be found when the pulpit resounds the trumpet of God, or as it puts Paulo, when the madness of God shows! The preaching is the distinctive mark of the Church. This mark was used by the reformers to identify a true Church. But, in our time to become difficult to find a faithful pulpit, and the one that saying of a true church.
Somebody can ask: is the preaching really necessary? Why you Presbyterians give so much importance to the preaching? Because she is the divisor of waters between the sky and the hell. Chapell reminds us something interesting on that:

We "know be insufficient our abilities for a task of such wide consequences. We recognized that our heart is not pure enough to guide other to the sanctity. A honest evaluation of our expertise unavoidably in the group to the conclusion that we don't have eloquence or wisdom capable to wash the people of the death for the life."[1]

In the days today the sermon is despised by Christ's Church with so much easiness that C.H.Spurgeon chgou to affirm the following: The apathy is for the whole part. Nobody worries in to verify that is being preached is true or false. A sermon is sermon, it doesn't import the subject; only that, the more short, better" The words of Spurgeon resound in our time, because, actually such negligence has been happening in our days, for that, we needed to face this subject with more seriousness. In this abbreviation study we will talk about the Faithful Preaching as the distinctive mark of the true Church.
Because, the Church without preaching resembles each other to body without soul, she doesn't have life. She has noise, cry and screams. as it happens in a funeral. but many have been attributing that to the Espírito Santo, though, they don't notice that the Spirit acts with and through the word.


Cannot we talk about this subject without we understand as the History of the Church faced him/it, in other words, how did the Church see the subject of the preaching faithful of the word? In the text that we read Paulo it valued the preaching offering dramatic connotations. What is the preaching? Stott tells us that is the exclusive emphasis of the Christianity."
For where to begin our historical pilgrimage of the preaching? Dargan indicates us that such search should be seen in the own cristo, because, the "Founder of the Christianity, personally, was the first of their preachers... " the Gospel present cristo as going and "proclaiming the good-new of God" (Mc.1.14; 1.39; Mt.4.17; 4.23; 9.35).
We are informed for the Deeds that the apostles gave priority to the preaching of the Word in Actions 6.4.
The apostolic parents insisted on this same theme. the preaching faithful of the word. as we see in Justino Martyr's report:

And in the day called Sunday, all how many live in the cities or in the interior they meet together in only one place, they are read the apostles' memoirs or the writings of the prophets, for as much time as possible; then, having finished the reader, the president instructed verbalmente, and it exhorts to the imitation of those virtuous things. Soon afterwards, all put ourselves of foot and we prayed and, as we said before, to the they finish our prayers bread, wine and water, and the president are brought, in a similar way, he/she offers prayers and actions free, according to his/her capacity, and the people agree saying amen.

Another called apostolic father Tertuliano tells the same truth basically about the preaching of the word in the day of the Mister. But, leaning that more prominent preacher doesn't exist in the history of the Church than João Chryssostomos. known as the Mouth of Gold. bishop in the Greek Church; the historians say that preaching of Chryssostomos possessed four basic characteristics that he/she came to become pattern for the faithful preaching;
1. It was a Biblical preaching.
2. Simple and direct interpretation.
3. Practical application.
4. It was fearless in their placements.

In the reality he was "martyr of the pulpit, because it was mainly his/her faithful preaching that provoked his/her exile." In the period of the reformers and of the puritans the preaching received such importance, to the point of bishop Latimer to say: The Word of God is seed to be thrown in the field of God" and "the preacher is the sower", the title of this sermon was "Hand in the Plow", for a moment of his/her preaching Latimer, asks an unusual question: "Who is the bishop and more diligent prelate in the whole England, that overcomes all the others in the exercise of his/her position? ...Do you want to know who is? . he/she is the Devil. It is him the most diligent preacher among all of the others", he continued:
He is never absent of his diocese; he is never far away from his ecclesiastical community; you will never find him/it unoccupied; he is always at his parish; it maintains resistance at every time; you will never find him/it unavailable... Where the Devil is in residence and it is with his/her plow in process, there: it had been the books and live the candles!; it had been the Bible and live the rosaries!; it had been the light of the Gospel and live the light of the candles. even at noon!; [...] they live the traditions and the men's laws!; I lower the traditions of God and his/her sacred Word! [...] therefore you, prelates that don't preach, learn with the Devil: the they be diligent in the exercise of his/her position [...] If you didn't want to learn of God, nor of good men, the they be diligent in the position, learn of the Devil.
In other words, if we are lazy for us to study the Word of God to apply, to preach and to defend her, if we didn't preach and we expose the Word of God to the men are enemy of the cause of the Gospel. And the preaching is the only vehicle for which the world can find salvation.
Then, nail the Word, because, the preaching continues being majestic and it is our duty to preach with singular authority without reservations, without fear, and believing that God has been using this method to save sinners as he declared Paulo in the text that we mentioned above.


Some people say that everything that we see at night at the Church in Domingos should be characterized as preaching; though, the authentic preaching is that that exposes the text, known as expository preaching. She should be a practice in the life of those that arise to the pulpit; we have been seeing that, many prefer to nail theme or topicamente. Why? Well, because it is easier to preach on top of a theme; usually the systematic theologians preach this way; they work themes in the Church on Sunday at night. I am not saying that the preaching should not Have a theme. the one that I am saying is that the text cannot be exposed with the doctrinaire presupposition that one should approach.
Let to explain to me: Imagine that you want to preach on the trindade. Then, it throws hand of the text of Gênesis 1.1 to base the doctrine; the first question to be done is: Was Moisés thinking about Trinity when he/she wrote this text, especially in the use of the noun plural elohim? And if we are sincere will we say that no, doesn't the text serve soon, but does that annul the doctrine? No. Do you prepare a study now on the subject, and does it begin with João 14.23. do we "come and will we do in him home" cristo is speaking of a Trinity? Yes. Then I now can understand Gênesis 1.1. there I see, for the mark of all the revelation, the embryonic form of Trinity.
The expository preaching she just concentrates on the text that is read. Why is so difficult to nail expositivamente? Because it demands more from the preacher:

1. He/she demands historical knowledge: the context of the passage should be taken into account.
2. He/she demands knowledge of the original text and of his/her grammar
3. He/she demands exegesis knowledge and hermenêutica.
4. He/she demands a lot of reading. exegesis manuals, interpretation manuals, biblical comments.
5. He/she demands knowledge of the doctrinaire systems: credos, confessions, systematic theologies.

Did the Church always nail expositivamente? This is a great question. The answer is affirmative, because we see that in the day of Pentecostes that Pedro's sermon was expository, see how the sermon is structured:
I. Jesus of Nazareth was an approved man for God.
. In His life
. In His death
. In His Resurrection
. In His ascension to the Skies.
II - Jesus received Espírito Santo and it spilled what you see and they hear.

III. God made to this Jesus, That you crucified, Mister and Christ.

IV. Application

1. Be sorry
2. Be baptized in Jesus Christ's name.

V. Promises:

1. Redemption of the sins
2. Talent of the Espírito Santo
3. Inclusion of the Children
4. And many that are far, so many how many our God to call.

Another text neotestamentário that presents us an expository preaching is Actions 7. known as Estevão's sermon. This sermon type was always present in the life of the Church from their origins, the sermon of the hill that Christ uttered is expository.
Why to nail expositivamente? Leaning that the expository preaching offers us some fundamental truths:

1. He/she restores the preaching of the crisis.
2. He/she annuls the methods mystics
3. He/she restores the authority of the Bible
4. He/she restores the life of the Church.

These quatros realities are manifested when we nailed expositivamente. That implicates in some things. First, in the display that the crisis in the preaching today is the result of our negligence, because, we are not nailing the Bible faithfully. We forgot than Paulo tells us in 1 Corinthian 4.1-2 our preaching should be faithful; in second place, the subjective methods should be rejected when we nailed expositivamente the word, an example of that, is the use that many do of João 14.6, and they say that you/they see three things there: I walk. it indicates the law of God.
Truth - it Indicates that the world is a lie
Life. it indicates Christ's Person.
This approach of the text is subjective, and it ignores the exegesis of the text. Jesus is not saying three different things, but he is using an illustration called Tríade Sinonímica. This means that Christ was saying a single thing: I am the alive and true road. Then don't advance to catch this text to do a preaching of three points!
When we nailed expositivamente restored the authority of the Bible, we are saying our people that all our ideas flow of the Bible. In other words, the expository preaching says that the Bible continues being the absolute pattern in a post-modern world. Why do tell that? It is because we know that nor "all of the answers that the church provides through their preachers proclaim good-new. Some simply abandoned all hope of finding a source of the truth to have authority." The Bible becomes the center of the cult and of the believer's life when expositivamente is confronted at night by the sacred text on Sunday. "Such preaching presents the authority voice that doesn't come from the man and it assures answers don't subject to cultural fantasies." The Bible receives the authority fully when we nailed the Deeds faithfully.
The expository preaching also offers life to the Church. The law of God when it is taught offers life and it vivifies the soul (Salt. 119.25; João 6.68). The preaching belongs the word to Christ to the Church; it is our duty to nail exposing the Bible.


How to identify a true Church? Well, we have been seeing that the preaching faithful of the word is the main mark of a true Church. It is not any preaching, notice is the faithful preaching. In other words, she should be faithful the revelation of God. That in the group for I begin him/it of the Reform called of Sola Scriptura (only the Deeds).
Every sermon should reflect the unanswerable faith that the Bible is the only authority source in the life of the Church. The ones that don't have faith like this until they can preach, but they are not faithful preachers the Bible, and like this, the Church that pasture cannot be classified as true Church.
What is wanting saying is that the expository preaching condemns all practical and doctrine that supplants the Deeds through new revelations or human traditions. The says "like this you" of the Deeds are the imperative of the expository preaching. Bible and only Bible and anything of revelations, supposedly produced by the Espírito Santo!
The faithful preaching is the main half free of Christ's Church, in other words, Christ speaks his/her Church only through her, because, she is Christ's Word. Hebrew 1.1; in the Presbyterian understanding the preaching is the most excellent middle for which the grace of God is communicated to the men..."
Our spiritual experiences are not able to any in way to annul the proclaimed Word of God (2 Pedro 1.15-21), it is exactly that that tells us Pedro, him that had a tremendous experience in the hill of the Transfiguration, but it didn't use this experience to suffocate the prophetic word that was being announced.
The preaching expository break whole anti-biblical tradition; no there are means for which we can be faithful preachers and we maintain traditions that he/she doesn't have support in the Bible. Ours and credos should be analyzed the light of the Word of God. The founder of the presbyterianism in Inglaterra Thomas Cartwright was a good one Anglican, though, he decided to do a series of expository preachings in the book of Actions and he discovered that the government of the primitive Church was Presbyterian government's system, then, he broke up with his Anglican tradition and it began the English presbyterianism.
The faithful preaching recognizes that the Deed is fully enough in everything that affirms, therefore, it is like this that he/she teaches us Paulo in 2 Timóteo 3.15-17. The expository preaching should be compromissada with the truth of the sufficiency of the Word of God.


How to know the Church that we frequented it is true? We should look at the cult! The cult is the reflex of as we treated the preaching; or it is the result of the preaching. The preaching turns the cult that she is.
The expository preaching is simple. Therefore the cult should be simple. The expository preaching is clear; each liturgical action should be clear; the expository preaching is biblical; everything in the cult should Have biblical sanction. The expository preaching is practical, then, the cult owes practical; the expository preaching seeks the glory of God and for consequence the cult should manifest that glory of God fully.
The preaching occupies the central place in the cult that rendered God. The liturgical reform becomes only possible if the preaching is in this central place. Josías in the times of the Old Will made a radical reform in the cult because the Law of God had been found and work! The Protestant Reform was the reform of the cult by the Proclamation of the Word. The word reforms the cult.
Calvino when talking about the primacy of the preaching in the cult, in his/her ecclesiastical manual, says that the "preaching of the Word should be the essential element of the public cult and the primordial and central task of the pastoral ministry." It is still Calvino says that "Satan tries to destroy the church making the Pure preaching" to disappear. , he still say that
"the signs for the which the church is recognized are the preaching of the Word and the observance of the sacraments, because these, wherever exist, they produce fruit and they prosper the blessing of God. I am not saying the Word wherever is nailed the fruits immediately they appear; but that wherever is received and inhabit for some time, she always manifests his/her effectiveness"
Then, if we wanted to know if we are in a true Church in fact should look as the preaching affects the cult! A cult where the men are not reverent, they don't hear the preaching of the Word as Central element (he/she Sees: Neemias 8), this cult was not restored by the Preaching. And why? Because it is spoken about the Word, but she doesn't nail her faithfully! In many cults the Word is used as appendix, because, the Theater, the coral, the choreography, the palms, the group of Praise becomes the center of the cult, the preaching is removed and the entertainment is put. The preaching lasts just some minutes, and it is treated in a subjective way and the message is triunfalista! "God will change his/her luck", "God revealed me that your victory will arrive"; and like this, they call that of preaching. That is not the preaching that characterizes the true Church.
The faithful preaching restores the cult because it puts God in the place of God, and the man in man's place. Where the sin is confronted, the duties are demanded, where the sanctity is exposed, where the hell is shown, where the grace is manifested in the proclamation have a true Church. The true cult is reflex of a faithful preaching. The Church that loves the expository preaching is a prepared Church to face the world; if we loved the expository preaching will love the cult unavoidably to God.


Before the one what have already been exposing the one what we we can learn and to apply for our lives? What conclusions can remove of all this what spoke?
1. Never despise the Preaching: The history of the Christianity in the alert for the majesty of the preaching and his/her glory.
2. Understand that the True Church values the expository Preaching: To identify that Church it is true evaluates his/her preaching, if she doesn't expose the teachings of the Bible faithfully, know that there there is no Church some.
3. Stick the truth that the True Church is committed with the sufficiency of the Word of God: Languages, prophecies and revelations or human traditions cannot silence the voice of the pulpit!
4. If a preaching in a Church doesn't restore the cult, then, there we don't have a true Church: The True Church will have the concern that everything that be accomplished in the cult should be ordered, for an explicit commandment, historical example and biblical inference. The Church that is committed with the expository preaching will have deep love to the cult to God and it will seek only the glory of God!

[1] CHAPPEL, Brayan. Preaching Cristocêntrica - Restoring the expository sermon: A practical and theological guide for the Biblical Preaching


Por: João Ricardo Ferreira de França.*
Neste ano a Reforma está comemorando 491 anos de sua deflagração contra os abusos de Roma. Todavia, quando lemos os artigos que falam sobre este momento singular da história, geralmente, temos a impressão de que a Reforma foi um movimento onde houve uma unanimidade em todos os seus particulares, mas a realidade é outra bem distinta da que pensamos, existiu grandes divergências entre eles. Este breve artigo visa abordar, de forma resumida, uma delas: a Eucaristia ou Santa Ceia..
A Santa Ceia sempre foi considerada como o vínculo de paz e unidade entre os crentes, todavia, foi motivo de discórdias dentro da chamada Reforma Protestante. É notório que o problema da Santa Ceia está vinculado as concepções cristológicas sustentadas pelos reformadores, e assim, a Eucaristia tem como pando de fundo a questão da presença ou não de Cristo nos elementos.
Antes da Reforma ocorrer a doutrina da Eucaristia era diferente da que nós temos hoje. A primeira realidade é que na “igreja primitiva, a celebração da Ceia do Senhor era o ponto central da adoração cristã”.( GEORGE, Timothy, 1993,p.145). Curiosamente o sacramento da Santa Ceia foi corrompido pala concepção da Transubstanciação ( a substância se transforma ). Tal doutrina passou a ser doutrina oficial na Igreja de Roma no quarto Concílio de Laterano em 1215 (BERKHOF, Louis., 1989, p.226.). Mas, essa idéia é bem anterior conforme podemos ver, pois,“ em 818 d.C um teólogo medieval chamado Pascácio Radbert formalmente propôs a doutrina de que os elementos, pelo poder divino, literalmente se transformam no mesmo corpo que nasceu de Maria” (BERKHOF, Louis, 1989, p.226.).
. No período da Idade das Trevas – ou Idade Média – a Santa Ceia passou a ser vista como algo miraculoso que protegia o viajante da doença, preservava os marinhos da fúria do mar, dava ainda a provisão na lavoura; chegava-se ao absurdo de dizer que a Ceia dava uma boa esposa ao solteiro (TAPPERT, Theodore G., 1961, p.41).
Diante disso, a Reforma se colocou contra estas concepções sobre o sacramento da Santa Ceia. Lutero tinha uma visão muito individual quanto a este sacramento ele “criticou a negação do cálice aos leigos”( SIERPIESKI, Paulo.,sem data, p.8.) Ele expressou dúvidas e criticou a doutrina da Transubstanciação. Lutero rejeitou a concepção de que os sacramentos fossem obras meritórias, e ensinou que eles eram dons da graça de Deus à sua Igreja e devem ser recebidos com fé. (LUTERO, Martinho.2006, p.50.).
O problema se manifestou quando Zwínglio tomou ciência de que Lutero estava ensinando que o corpo de Cristo estava literalmente presente na eucaristia, enquanto o reformador Zwínglio ensinava que o pão e o vinho, da Santa Comunhão, eram apenas memoriais da morte de Cristo, e assim, o estopim estava ativado. Lutero escreve uma carta a um amigo dizendo que a interpretação do reformador Zwínglio estava equivocada (STROHL, Henri., 1989, p.144); o reformador alemão tinha a seu favor um tese de um padre que defendia a consubstanciação que nunca foi negada oficialmente pela Igreja Romana(STROHL, Henri., Ibid, p.225), isso ainda alimentou a concepção de que Lutero estivesse certo.
Houve uma guerra de escritos sendo trocados entre ambos, pois, discordavam energicamente quanto a este assunto; os livros de ambos chegaram a ser vendidos lado a lado pelos jornaleiros da época. Lutero não estava disposto a dizer que a Eucaristia era um mero “símbolo das realidades espirituais” (GONZALEZ, Justo L., 1983, p.71). A grande arma de Lutero era as palavras da Instituição de Cristo “isto é o meu corpo” , não “indica a transubstanciação, mas aponta para o fato de que Cristo está literalmente sobre o pão, ao lado do vinho e sob ambos elementos” (Idem)

Diante de tamanha guerra decidiu-se fazer um debate entre os grupos – luteranos e zwínglianos – para se resolver o dilema. Filipe de Hesse propôs que o debate fosse realizado em seu Castelo em Marburgo no ano de 1529. Lutero estava acompanhado de seu ilustre amigo Melanchton e com outros colegas. E Zwínglio estava acompanhado de Ecolampádio, Bucer que era os líderes principais dos Zwínglianos. O fato curioso neste debate é que dos quinze pontos discutidos entre Lutero e Zwínglio quartoze deles ambos estavam de acordo, mas na questão da Eucaristia ambos discordavam.
O reformador Zwínglio chegou a clamar com lágrimas que desejava concordar com os luteranos (GEORGE, Timothy., Op.Cit, p.150) Travou-se uma guerra exegética. Zwínglio diz que Lutero defende uma doutrina que não pode ser comprovada pelas Escrituras, e não tem a menor coragem de citar uma única passagem. Lutero estava com uma lousa coberta com um pano, e após, a declaração de seu opositor, removeu o pano, e no quadro estava escrito “Este é o meu corpo!”, então, Lutero dirigiu-se a Zwínglio dizendo: “Aqui está a nossa passagem das Escrituras. Você ainda não a tirou de nós.”(Idem) Lutero rejeitou as figuras de linguagem usadas por Zwínglio para mostrar que ali estava empregada uma linguagem não-literal.( KLEIN, Carlos Jeremias.,2006, p.77-82) Mas isso foi em vão. Ambos os grupos ficaram divididos definitivamente.


Na discussão entre Lutero e Zwínglio havia um homem que pensou profundamente sobre essa questão da Eucaristia. Ele nos ofereceu um esclarecimento bíblico e teológico sobre a Ceia do Senhor e a presença de Cristo na mesma. O nome deste reformador é João Calvino considerado o maior exegeta da Reforma Protestante. Para Calvino a Eucaristia era mais que uma simples “cerimônia de comemoração do Sacrifício de Cristo: era um evento de comunhão com o próprio Cristo”( CALVINO, João.,1999,Livro 4, Cap.14, parag.1,9.). Embora ele aceitasse algumas afirmações de Zwínglio, afirmava que Cristo estava presente no Sacramento da Ceia mediante a ação do Espírito Santo, e assim, de fato, o Sacramento poderia ser chamado de Meio de Graça onde os eleitos recebem o que a eles é destinado no sacramento, enquanto que os falsos crentes recebem juízo de Deus; logo, a concepção calvinista sobre a Ceia é que Cristo está real, porém, espiritualmente nos elementos.
Esta concepção de Calvino é a posição das Igrejas Presbiterianas e Reformadas conforme expressa seus símbolos de Fé.( Confissão de Fé de Westminster: Cp.27, Seç. 3; Cp.29, Seç. 1,5,7; veja-se também o Catecismo Maior de Westminster nas perguntas: 162, 168,170) O que aprendemos deste assunto? Aprendemos que Reforma foi movimento onde havia de fato uma reflexão teológica. Aprendemos que os reformadores tiveram que lidar com questões que mereciam ser esclarecidas; mas também aprendemos que aquilo que deveria unir a fé tornou-se uma divisão entre eles. De sorte que mundo está dividido assim: os romanos com a transubstanciação; os luteranos com a consubstanciação; os zwínglianos com a concepção memorial e os calvinistas com a noção da presença real de Cristo nos sacramentos de forma espiritual. Isso deveria nos entristecer? Não. Isto deveria nos estimular a orarmos para que a Igreja de Cristo mostre sua unidade nestas questões singulares.

Referencias Bibliográficas.
BERKHOF, Louis. A História das Doutrinas Cristã, São Paulo: PES, 1989.
CALVINO, João. Intitución de la religión Cristiana, Barcelona: Felire, 1999.
GEORGE, Timothy. Teologia dos Reformadores, Trad.Gérson Dudus & Valéria Fontana, São Paulo: Vida Nova,1993).
GONZALEZ, Justo L. A Era dos Reformadores, São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1983.
LUTERO, Martinho. Do Cativeiro Babilônico da Igreja, Trad. Martin N. Dreher, São Paulo: Martin Claret,.2006.
KLEIN, Carlos Jeremias. Os Sacramentos na Tradição Reformada, São Paulo: Fonte Editorial, 2005.
SIERPIESKI, Paulo. História do Cristianismo I, Da Reforma, Recife: Seminário Batista do Norte – Obra não Publicada, s/d.
STROHL, Henri. O Pensamento da Reforma, São Paulo: Aste, 1989.
TAPPERT, Theodore G. The Lord’s Supper: Past and Present Pratices Filadélfia: Muhlenberg Press, 1961.
* O autor é seminarista, sendo o vice-presidente da mesa administrativa na Congregação Presbiterial em Prazeres também é candidato ao Sagrado Ministério pelo Presbitério do Recife e atualmente está bacharelando em Teologia no Seminário Presbiteriano do Norte (SPN)